The riding accident and diseases in may have aggravated these persistent conditions, which continued to affect him through his years at Basel, forcing him to take longer and longer holidays until regular work became impractical. Philological considerations have slowly but surely taken the place of profound explorations of eternal problems.
Logically, with respect to knowledge, Nietzsche insists that principles of perception and judgment evolve co-dependently with consciousness, in response to physical necessities.
That is, if life is an inherent evil and nothingness is a concrete improvement over existence, then diminishing or impairing life through asceticism yields a net enhancement of value. Taking this approach, however, risks confusing aspects of the Nietzsche legend with what is important in his philosophical work, and many commentators are rightly skeptical of readings derived primarily from biographical anecdotes.
Because they denied the possibility of certainty, Skeptics could denounce traditional truths as unjustifiable opinions. Emphasis is laid on the one who faces the problem of nihilism.
It seeks a new realm and another channel for its activity, and it finds this in myth and in art generally. This property-dualist interpretation faces epistemological objections similar to those faced by the two-objects interpretation, because we are in no better position to acquire knowledge about properties that do not appear to us than we are to acquire knowledge about objects that do not appear to us.
This was the main intellectual crisis of the Enlightenment. InMartin Heidegger, to cite another example, observed that nihilism in various and hidden forms was already "the normal state of man" The Question of Being. Moreover, if I am not alone in the world but there are many noumenal selves acting freely and incorporating their free actions into the experience they construct, then how do multiple transcendentally free agents interact?
And is this or that text rightly ascribed to him or not? The exact nature of this alleged revolt is a matter of ongoing scholarly controversy in recent literature, see Bittner ; Reginster ; Migotti ; Ridley ; May From within the logic of will to power, narrowly construed, human meaning is thus affirmed.
There are passages that support this reading. On the positive side, Nietzsche is equally keen to detail the psychological conditions he thinks would be healthier for both individuals and cultures see, e. Kant was turned down for the same position in A variety of scholars have recently explored the resources of this line of thought in Nietzsche; Anderson surveys the literature, and notable contributions include Ridley bPippin, ReginsterKatsafanas b,and especially the papers in Gemes and May In Russia, nihilism became identified with a loosely organized revolutionary movement C.
What philosophical ground, after all, could support revaluation if this interpretation were accurate? Space and time are its pure forms, sensation in general its matter. He is indifferent toward pure knowledge which has no consequences; toward those truths which are possibly harmful and destructive he is even hostilely inclined.
These works began with Daybreakwhich collected critical observations on morality and its underlying psychology, and there followed the mature works for which Nietzsche is best known: Enklinobarangus Will the progress of research prove that justice is worthless and mercy hateful?
Existential nihilism is the notion that life has no intrinsic meaning or value, and it is, no doubt, the most commonly used and understood sense of the word today.
Are designations congruent with things? Yet, a flourishing life will still demand, one might imagine, being able to suspend, hide, or forget—at the right moments—the creation of values, especially the highest values.
For they then are related necessarily and a priori to objects of experience, since only by means of them can any object of experience be thought at all.
The scientific, technological, and political revolutions of the previous two hundred years put an enormous amount of pressure on the old world order. He wore a signet ring bearing the Radwan coat of armstraceable back to Polish nobility of medieval times  and the surname "Nicki" of the Polish noble szlachta family bearing that coat of arms.
Such a morality needs to have universalistic pretensions: For nearly two decades he had lived a highly disciplined life focused primarily on completing his philosophical system, which began to take definite shape in his mind only in middle age. He lived on untilwhen he died of a stroke complicated by pneumonia.
What, then, may be said about Nietzsche as political thinker? On the compatibilist view, as Kant understands it, I am free whenever the cause of my action is within me. In that case, I could not become conscious of an identical self that has, say, representation 1 in space-time A and representation 2 in space-time B.
So it seems that the values Nietzsche endorses conflict with one another, and that very fact is crucial to the value they have for us Anderson The name derives from the forename Nikolaus, abbreviated to Nick; assimilated with the Slavic Nitz, it first became Nitsche and then Nietzsche.Nihilism.
Nihilism is the belief that all values are baseless and that nothing can be known or communicated. It is often associated with extreme pessimism and a radical skepticism that condemns existence. A true nihilist would believe in nothing, have no loyalties, and no purpose other than, perhaps, an impulse to destroy.
History of Philosophy. The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato. That is the secret of all culture: it does not provide artificial limbs, wax noses or spectacles—that which can provide these things is, rather, only sham education.
Friedrich Nietzsche developed his philosophy during the late 19th century. He owed the awakening of his philosophical interest to reading Arthur Schopenhauer's Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung (The World as Will and Representation,revised ) and said that Schopenhauer was one of the few thinkers that he respected, dedicating to him his essay.
Kurt Vonnegut, Susan Sontag, Aldous Huxley, Oliver Sacks, Walt Whitman, Virginia Woolf, Friedrich Nietzsche, and more. Friedrich Nietzsche (–) was a German philosopher and cultural critic who published intensively in the s and s. He is famous for uncompromising criticisms of traditional European morality and religion, as well as of conventional philosophical ideas and social and political pieties associated with modernity.Download